There are 195 countries in the world today, each with their own nationality. In this list we detail country names alongside their nationalities adjectives and noun forms so that you know how to refer to someone from a specific country.
The table below lists the following information:
- Name of the country
- The nationality (adjective) for that country
- The nationality (noun used) for a person from that country
List of Countries and Nationalities
|China||Chinese||a Chinese person|
|Costa Rica||Costa Rican||a Costa Rican|
|Czech Republic||Czech||a Czech person|
|Dominican Republic||Dominican||a Dominican|
|El Salvador||Salvadorian||a Salvadoran|
|Japan||Japanese||a Japanese person|
|New Zealand||New Zealand||a New Zealander|
|Portugal||Portuguese||a Portuguese person|
|Saudi Arabia||Saudi||a Saudi (Arabian)|
|Senegal||Senegalese||a Senegalese person|
|South Africa||South African||a South African|
|South Korea||Korean||a Korean|
|Sri Lanka||Sri Lankan||a Sri Lankan|
|Sudan||Sudanese||a Sudanese person|
|Switzerland||Swiss||a Swiss person|
|Taiwan||Taiwanese||a Taiwanese person|
|Thailand||Thai||a Thai person|
|United Arab Emirates||Emirati||an Emirati|
|(The) United Kingdom||British||a Brit|
|(The) United States||American *||an American|
|Vietnam||Vietnamese||a Vietnamese person|
* People from the United States are often referred to as ‘Americans’. However, people from Central and South America tend not to like the word American for people from the United States, because they are also Americans and have their own national identity. They therefore call people from the United States North American.
Examples of use of nationalities
Country: I am from Italy.
Nationality: I am Italian.
Adjective: He likes Mexican food.
Origins: She is a Spanish person. = She is from Spain. = She is Spanish.
Language: He speaks Chinese.
Describing a group: Spaniards often take a siesta. = Spanish people often take a siesta.
Your nationality is the country you come from. Japanese, English, and Spanish are all nationalities.
Therefore, the term “nationalities” refers to the identity or membership of individuals in a particular nation or country. It is a concept used to categorize people based on their affiliation with a specific nation-state, often associated with the country in which they were born, hold citizenship, or have strong cultural ties.
Nationalities play a significant role in defining a person’s legal status, rights, and obligations within a country. They are an essential aspect of individual and group identity, as they connect people to a shared history, culture, language, and traditions associated with their nation.
Another important thing to note is that within a country there can also be different ethnic groups, who may identify themselves as a different nationality to that of their country. They or their parents may have immigrated to the country from abroad, or they could identify with a particular region within their country.
For example, Spain is comprised of a number of different ethnic groups such as Basques, Castilians, Catalans, Galicians, and Valencians. Depending upon their political beliefs, some people might say that these represent different nationalities of Spain. However, for now it’s safe to refer to everyone in Spain as Spanish.
The concept of nationality can sometimes be complex, as it can differ from ethnicity, race, or citizenship. While nationality often denotes a legal status and political affiliation with a specific country, ethnicity refers to shared cultural and ancestral heritage, and race pertains to physical characteristics.
Citizenship, on the other hand, refers to a person’s legal membership in a country and the rights and responsibilities that come with it.
The proper adjective for Spain is Spanish. You would refer to Spain’s inhabitants as Spanish people. However, if you wanted to describe their nationality in noun form, you would use the word “Spaniards”.
The proper adjective for Switzerland is Swiss. You would refer to Switzerland’s inhabitants as Swiss people.
The nationality of France is French. You would refer to France’s inhabitants as French people. However, if you wanted to describe their nationality in noun form, you would use the words “Frenchman” or “Frenchwoman”.